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NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTERS 


DBGEIW 


Representing non-commercial, educational AM, FM, and TV broadcasting stations, workshops, 

and production centers, owned and operated by colleges, universities, school systems, and public service agencies. 


APRIL 1952 


NEWS OF NAEB 

WALDO ABBOT 

REGION V MEETING AT NORMAN SUCCESSFUL 

NAEB's first Kellogg project supported regional meeting. 

-- 

LIBRARY OF BROADCASTING 

held- at Normn - 40 -klahoma)---- 


March 28 through 30, was pronounced a great success by the Region V members as well 
as by the NAEB officers and headquarters personnel present* 

A total of k3 persons attended the meeting# All of Region V’s eleven active members 
were present, as were L of the district’s seven associate members# Region V states 
were represented as follows: Oklahoma—21*5 Kansas— h} Texas—J+j Missouri—3 j New Mex¬ 
ico— 1; Louisiana—1$ Colorado—1. Also present were the NAEB Executive Committee 
(president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer) and the organizations’s execu¬ 
tive director# 


Regional Director John Dunn Makes Arrangemsnts 

Under the leadership of John Dunn, head of the University of Oklahoma’s VJNAD and 
NAEB Region V director, a varied and stimulating program was presented# The combina¬ 
tion of local guest speakers and NAEB personnel provided a core around which were 
built discussions of the radio and television problems of the Region V members 
present# 

The meetings were held in the luxurious Oklahoma Memorial Union Building on the Uni¬ 
versity campus# Those in attendance were taken on tours of the WNAD studios (all 9 
of them, with shining new equipmenti), convened in meeting rooms in the Union, and 
ate their principal meals there* Delegates were housed in the Extension Study Cen¬ 
ter on the town’s outskirts# 


COST OF "NEWS-LETTER" SUBSCRIPTIONS REDUCED 

At its February meeting in Urbana the NAEB Executive Committee voted a change in 
News-Letter subscription rates as follows: 



All members and associate members will continue to receive the News-Letter as a part 
of their service from NAEB, and subscription rates to non-members will remain at 
$£#00. However, both active and associate members now may have additional subscrip¬ 
tions at the reduced price of $2.£0 per year (instead of $£#00 as heretofore)# 


IN THIS ISSUE 

News of NAEB Activities.- 

Radio and Television Overseas.. 

NAEB Tape Network—Richard Rider.. 

Research Report—Dallas Smythe.... 


1-11 
12 - lh 
l£ - 16 
16 - 19 


The N-A-E-B NEWS-LETTER, published monthly, is distributed from 
the national headquarters office at the University of Illinois. N-A-E-B 
members and associate members receive the NEWS-LETTER as part of 
membership service. Non-members may obtain the publication at a 
subscription rate of $5.00 per year. All inquiries regarding subscriptions 


and distribution should be addressed to: NAEB, 119 Gregory Hall, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. Editorial copy and inquiries 
concerning editorial matters should be sent to the Editor, Burton 
Paulu, Station KUOM, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 14, 
Minnesota. 























- 2 - 


KSLH CELEBRATES SECOND BIRTHDAY 

KSLH, the St. Louis Board of Education Radio Station, celebrated the anniversary of 
its second year of broadcasting on April 8th, 9th and 10th. From a modest beginning 
in the spring of 1950, the station has grown until it now carries twenty-six class¬ 
room programs. Eighteen of these are original programs planned, written and pro¬ 
duced in the KSLH studios. The remaining eight programs, produced elsewhere, are 
relayed by transcription and tape recordings released by the NAEB tape network. 

In order to broadcast these programs the station extended its broadcasting hours 
this semester so it is now on the air from 9:10 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. daily* 

KSLH programs have already received national recognition. "Your United Nations," a 
series written and presented over KSLH during 1950 and 1951 by Lucille Sutherland, 
Principal of the Ashland School, was broadcast to school children in Flint, Michigan, 
this year, and scripts for the series will soon be made available to all educational 
institutions by the United States Office of Education. 

"Let’s Find Out > " KSLH Primary science series, written and narrated by Gertrude B. 
Hoffsten, KSLH staff member, received an honorable mention at the Institute for 
Education by Radio and Television last spring and was recently accepted by the NAEB 
Tape Network. The series is now being sent to some fifty-four stations in the United 
States. 

In recognition of its second anniversary, Station KSLH planned several special events 
for the week of April 7th. On Tuesday, April 8th, administrators met with radio co¬ 
ordinators of the St. Louis Public Schools and members of radio planning committees. 
Invited out-of-town guest included James Miles, NAEB Executive Director, and Richard 
Rider, NAEB Tape Network Manager. 

Other events scheduled for this anniversary week included utilization demonstrations 
of KSLH radio programs to be held on Wednesday, April 9th, and an open house on 
Thursday, April 10th. 

PAYNE SCRIPT CONTEST OPEN 

Opening of the Payne competition for writers of educational radio programs has been 
announced by Robert B. Hudson, Director of University of Illinois Broadcasting. 

The competition offers three $500 prizes for scripts on the subjects of health, inter¬ 
national relations, and community action. Both professional and amateur writers are 
invited to submit scripts for 15 minute programs in one of the fields plus outlines 
for three additional programs in the field. The winner in each contest will be ex¬ 
pected to complete his outlines for a series of four broadcasts. 

The four scripts by each winner will be broadcast by the University of Illinois radio 
stations, WILL and WIUC, and transcriptions will be made available through the Nation¬ 
al Association of Educational Broadcasters Tape Network for broadcasting by other non¬ 
commercial educational stations. 

Judges of the comptetion will be Robert J. Landry, editor. Time and Space ; Richard 
Rider, manager, NAEB network^ and Parker Wheatley, director, Lowell Institute Co¬ 
operative Broadcasting Council. 

Entries must be submitted in triplicate with an official entry form by September 15, 
1952. Information and entry blanks may be obtained from the Director of University 
Broadcasting, University of Illinois, Urbana. 





HULL - TAYLOR - HUDSON TO PARIS FOR UNESCO 


Three American television experts attended the first international meeting on televi¬ 
sion to be organized by UNESCO — the United Nations Educational* Scientific and 
Cultural Organization, They were Robert B. Hudson of Urbana* Illinois* TV consult¬ 
ant to the Ford Foundation's Fund for Adult Education; Richard B. Hull* director of 
WOI-TV* Ames, Iowa; and Davidson Taylor* general production executive for the NBC 
Television network* New York City, As members of the UNESCO Advisory Committee on 
Television* they will meet in Paris from April 7 to 12 with men and women from nine 
other countries where television has become an important means of communication, 

Luther H. Evans* Librarian of Congress and chairman of the U, S, National Commission 
for UNESCO* in making the announcement said that UNESCO had chosen three American 
representatives on its advisory committee of thirteen in recognition of the advanced 
development of television in this country. The three U, S, experts were chosen by 
UNESCO as representatives of a major television network* a college which has experi¬ 
mented in educational television and a member of a research institution which has 
carried out studies on the influence of television in society. 

Other members of the Committee were Mrs. Mary Adams of BBC-TV and Maurice Corhan* 
formerly director of BBC-TV* Great Britain; Mr, Porche* Director-General of French 
radio and television; Mr. Zaffrani* Secretary-General of radio in Italy; Professor 
Kors* President of the Netherlands association for TV; Mr. Besencon* Director-General 
of Swiss radioj and Mr. Seguin, Director of Television for the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation, 

The primary object of UNESCO in organizing the conference was to discover any poss¬ 
ible ways in which it can itself assist the development of television on the inter¬ 
national plane, and promote its use for the purposes of education* science and 
culture, 

EDUCATIONAL FM GRANT TO KNOXVILLE* TENNESSEE, SCHOOL 

On January 8 the FCC granted the application of Fulton High School of Knoxville* 
Tennessee* for a non-commercial educational FM broadcasting station. 

PROFESSOR GORDON RIDES THE CIRCUIT 

University of Wisconsin Professor E. B. Gordon* known to thousands of Wisconsin boys 
and girls as their invisible singing teacher* has begun his yearly "circuit ride" to 
Wisconsin towns to conduct his regional music festivals. These festivals climax the 
year's "Journeys in Music Land" broadcasts presented by Professor Gordon over State 
Radio Stations WHA* WLBL* and the State FM network each weex during the school year. 
Approximately 90*000 children are now enrolled in the course. 

This year Mr. Gordon has arranged 13 regional festivals in addition to the one at 
Edison on May 10* which is expected to bring together more than 3*000 Badger 
children. 

This year at the regional festivals the children will not only see Mr. Gordon and 
sing with him; they'll also be able to meet the man who tells them how to have fun in 
art by radio—James Schwalbach of "Let's Draw." Schwalbach is extension specialist 
in art and design who broadcasts every Tuesday at 1*30 p.m.* using stories and songs 
based on Wisconsin's rich heritage to teach students the fundamentals of art, 

Schwalbach's part of the program will include a demonstration of the ains of the 
course and a showing of some of the work accomplished by his radio pupils. 






PUSH BUTTON RADIO RELAY IN MICHIGAN 


Flint, Michigan, will have one of the first twelve push-button radio stations in the 
nation when WAJL (FM) returns to the air this month under the auspices of the Uni¬ 
versity of Michigan. The station was given to the University on February 19 by an 
anonymous donor. 

The University Broadcasting Service has applied to the Federal Communications Commis¬ 
sion for permission to operate WAJL entirely by remote control from Ann Arbor. The 
commission is studying the request and a favorable answer 4 believed forthcoming in 
the very near future. Under the plans submitted by University engineers, the entire 
control of WAJL would be by micro-wave signals from the main studios in Ann Arbor. 

The University now operates WUOM, a UU,000 watt (ERP) FM station broadcasting on 91*7 
megacycles. A special FM receiver installed at the WAJL transmitter will be tuned 
to WUOM's frequency. Leading off from this will be a sensitive chain of relay 
switches which can be tripped only by a supersonic tone signal coming over WUOM. 

When a WUOM engineer wants to put WAJL on the air, he will press a button, which 
will transmit the supersonic tone for a fraction of a second. In Flint, a relay will 
trip, power will flow into the WAJL transmitter, and the station will be on the air. 
At the Close of the broadcasting day, the station can be turned off the same way. 
According to F.C.C. secretary, T. J. Slowie, only eleven authorizations for remote 
control FM stations have been issued throughout the country. Some of these are not 
yet on the air. 

When the system is approved, station WAJL will carry the current schedule of Univer¬ 
sity of Michigan educational, sports and musical programs. The normal broadcasting 
day will begin at 12 noon and continue until 10:30 p.m. Monday through Friday. A 
segment of each day's schedule will be devoted to programs for daily classroom lis¬ 
tening in Michigan's rural schools. Several hundred rural schools already are using 
these shows and station WAJL will become a vital link in transmitting the series to 
new areas. Sport schedules and special events will be aired over the weekends. 

KUOM RECORDS FOR VOICE OF AMERICA 

KUOM staff members and station facilities were put to work for the Voice of America 
April h to help produce and record a musical salute from thp Minneapolis Symphony 
Orchestra to Florence, Italy. 

The program was a regular Minneapolis Symphony concert given at Northrop auditorium 
on the University of Minnesota campus. Chief Engineer Berton Holmberg and engineer 
Larry Larson tape-recorded the program while Northop Dawson, Jr., program-production 
director, assisted Walter Ducloux, VOA music chief, in production. 

The concert included an intermission program with short talks by Minneapolis' Mayor 
Eric Hoyer, Antal Dorati, orchestra conductor, Baron Carlo De Ferrariis Salzano, the 
Italian consul general from Chicago and several Italian-Americans. 

According to Ducloux, the aim of this music good will gesture is to demonstrate that 
America has a high quality of cultural as well as industrial production. "It's a 
kind of people-to-people diplomacy," he said. 

The tape will be sent to Florence for broadcasting and will be heard throughout 
Italy over Italian national radio facilities. 

The program is one in a series being worked out by the U.S. Department of State in 
which major orchestras of the country are saluting a number of important European 
centers. 





- 5 - 


UNIVERSITI OF MIAMI TV NEWSREEL ON WTVJ 

( - 

University of Miami (Fla.) Radio and Television Department's weekly television news¬ 
reel is receiving praises from University officials and station executives as a co¬ 
operative project. 

Possibly the first TV newsreel regularly produced by a university, this five-minute 
video summary of the week's events on the campus has high public relations value for 
the institution while offering unique training opportunities for television students. 
After carrying the program in choice newstime since last October, WTVJ executives 
requested it be continued as a regular cooperative contribution to the station’s 
public service programming. "Campus Newsreel" is carried at 5>;ij.5> p.m. Saturdays, 
between a sports show and the station's local news program. 

The four minutes of footage averages four subjects a week. Besides praise for the 
selection of events, Lee Ruwitch, WTVJ vice president and manager, emphasized that 
excellent use of theme and background music gave the reel professional finish and 
exceptional viewer appeal. 

Student Project Under Faculty Direction 

The reel runs approximately l£0 feet on the air. Careful planning cuts down total 
shooting to about 300 feet a week. The project is under the direction of Prof.O.P. 
Kidder, Jr., (formerly of WRGB, Schenectady), chairman, of tie Radio and Television 
Department. Studentsof the department's motion picture workshop course are organ¬ 
ized into three teams of three men each for shooting assignments. John Murphy, sen¬ 
ior radio-TV major, of Evanston, Illinois, is student supervisor. Team chiefs take 
assignments from him and class edits film under his direction. 

Deadline for delivering footage for processing is 2 p.m., Friday, except for late 
special events. WTVJ processes the film in its laboratories. Students edit the 
reel Friday evening and Saturday morning in the campus cutting room. Commentary for 
live student announcer is written Saturday and special music is pulled from depart- 
nent’s sizable library. 

Music is dubbed via presto recorder on two alternating discs at 78 r.p.m., each 
sequence being spaced separately on disc, so that audio operator seques manually on 
que from Student Murphy who sits with him in control room. 

Reel is photographed on Eastman blue-base negative with Bell and Howell 70—H l6mm. 
camera, using three—lense turret and extra lense. Lenses 0.7*S 1% 2", and 2". 
Profession Junior tripod is used. 

For frequent interiors a bank of four $-2 reflector photofloods is attached to camera 
or tripod. Special situations are lighted by #h photofloods in large reflectors on 
stands. 

Kidder Says: "Ideal" for Training Students 

From the student-training point of view, prof. Kidder states; "The weekly newsreel 
produced for actual on-the-air programming is ideal for training motion picture and 
televison students. Meeting the deadline weekly gives the .oject zest for the 
students. A campus provides a wide variety of newsreel subjects, ranging from^ 
symphony concerts and art gallery openings to swift-action sports and student fun. 
Besides acquiring technical skill and judgement, the student camera teams, editors, 
writers, announcers, and music personnel learn effective cooperation." 






WOI-TV SERIES REPORT 


- 6 - 


As of March 27, the Fund for Adult Education and WOI-TV have produced 11 programs in 
the current weekly series, "The Whole Town’s Talking," which features Iowa Community 
problems. 

Citizens from each community appear before the IC>I-TV cameras to air their views on 
the specific community problem as they see it. And their discussions have been 
lively ones. 

Schools reorganization was the first problem to be tackled by the FAE production 
staff. First the small community of Cambridge, la., served as the basis for a school 
discussion. Viewing groups were set up in the town to watch the program and to hold 
further discussions afterward. This same procedure has been enlarged and repeated in 
each community represented since that time. 

Five programs were centered around the school problem theme, ending with a slam-bang 
affair at the Statehouse in Des Moines. 

Following two interim programs of evaluation by the Iowa Advisory Committee for the 
FAE and by viewers who had expressed opinions of the program through letters to the 
station. Cedar Rapids exporters met with representatives of the sugar beet industry 
on February 21 and the dairy industry on February 28, to discuss problems of econ¬ 
omic interdependence. 

A broadcast from Slater on Iowa’s school bond issue, basically a problem of athletics 
as compared with academic work, was the next program in the series, followed by 
problems of teenage recreation in Toledo, a courthouse building issue in Guthrie 
Center, and a county hospital plan in Humboldt. 

A number of interesting developments have been noted following the programs. School 
district reorganization plans have been drawn up and completed by Hardin County since 
the program two months ago. Teenage recreation councils have been set up in three 
towns following the program on Toledo’s problem one month ago, and the Slater bond 
issue was voted upon and defeated, although the latter may or may not have been a 
result of the program. 

STASHEFF AND WILLIS TO MICHIGAN 

Edward Stasheff, TV supervisor of WNYE, New York, and Edgar E. Willis, professor of 
speech at San Jose State College, have been appointed to the University of Michigan 
speech department faculty effective next fall. 

Stasheff is producer of "living Blackboard," a public school television series. He 
has been writer-director for WNYE and education director at TV station WPIX, both in 
New York City. Willis is in charge of radio and television at San Jose. In 19UO-ii3 
he was in the radio department of Detroit Public Schools and director of forensics at 
Wayne University after the War. 

"With these two additions to the staff we plan to increase our radio and television 
course offerings," said Garnet R. Garrison, director of television and professor of 
speech at the University of Michigan. 

Michigan now has a weekly series of one hour Telecourses on Sunday over WWJ-TV, 
Detroit; WJIM-TV, Lansing; and WKZO-TV, Kalamazoo. A Saturday half-hour series is 
carried by WOOD-TV, Grand Rapids. Fifteen student radio shows are produced each week 
by the Speech Department. 






^ TWENTIETH CENTURY FUND TV SERIES DEVELOPED 7 AT SYRACUSE 

Experimentation in developing formats for television programs dealing with economics 
will begin shortly at the Radio Television Center, Syracuse University, under sponsor¬ 
ship of the Twentieth Century Fund* 

The research project was approved by the Twentieth Century Fund on March 21st as a 
result of a presentation made by the University last December# The purpose of the 
project is to determine the most effective methods of presenting economic information 
via television to the lay public. 

All research and experimentation will be conducted in the city of Syracuse with Ed¬ 
ward C. Jones in charge of coordinating the project, Don Iyon in charge of scripts 
and production, and Lawrence Myers in charge of research. Arthur Weld will direct 
the series. All are staff members of the Radio Television Center. Coordinator of 
the project at Twentieth Century Fund is Thomas Carskadon, Chief of the Education 
Department. 

Briefly the research and experimentation will consist of the presentation of programs 
broadcast from the University’s television studios on campus over WSYR-TV. Three 
programs in all, each using an experimental format, and based on economic research 
information supplied by the Fund, will be broadcast on succeeding weeks in April. 

Each program will employ a format different from the other two in the manner of pres¬ 
entation. Audience reaction tests and interviews with listeners will be conducted 
to determine the relative impact of each particular format. The experimental pro¬ 
grams have been scheduled over WSYR-TV for 6*30 - 7:00 April 5th, 12th, and 26th. 


In early correspondence regarding the proposed experimentation, Mr. Carskadon said* 
"Our aim in this whole project is to explore television as a medium for carrying to 
the public the results of the Twentieth Century Fund research surveys. 

"Mare specifically we are interested to see if the educational television stations 
offer a fruitful line of cooperation for us in their ability to handle our type of 
material and bring it before an interested and sympathetic audience." 

Jones emphasized that the University is extremely anxious to take part in such "ex¬ 
plorations into television's unknown." "Certainly," he said, "efforts like these are 
essential in determining more about television's vast potential and in assuring that 
it will become a mature and respohsible medium." 


WBKY PREPARES "TRANSPORTATION KENTUCKY" 

The University of Kentucky's VfflKI is now producing a series of nine on-the-spot 30 
Programs to . be ent ^ tle d "Transportation Kentucky." These programs deal re- 
a V trunk llr !e railroad, a short line railroad, a terminal railroad, 

a national air line, a feeder air line, a highway truck line, a highway bus line, a 
nver carrier and a captive barge line. J ’ a 

Elrter G. Sulzer, Head of the Department of Radio Arts at the University of Kentucky 

—--- itas? 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN OFFERS TV SERIES 

M^Vvf 7 iE ^ t t leViSing a l5 - week telecourse on political parties on its University of 
Michigan Television Hour. The series began Sunday, February 17. 

Wil1 ^ S ° ° ffer tW ° 7 " Week courses on understanding numbers and the 
soiar system during the new semester. Registrations for the course are handled bv 
the University's extension division office. nancuea Dy 






- 8 - 


HOPKINS SCIENCE REVIEW TO BE PRODUCED IN BBC STUDIOS 

The British Broadcasting Corporation has invited Lynn Poole, creator and producer of 
"The Johns Hopkins Science Review" to consult and work with its production staff at 
Alexandra Palace in London, and to produce three programs in the BBC studios, 

Mr* Poole will leave for London by plane on Tuesday, April 22, returning to the 
United States late in May. While there he will consult with British TV personnel, 
give several lectures and present three "Science Review" programs* For these programs 
British scientists will be the guests and demonstrate current developments in British 
science. These programs will be kinescoped and flown back to the United States and 
shown to the American audience at the regularly scheduled time, Mondays at 8:30 P.M. 
(E.S.T.) 

It is believed that this will be the first time a network television series has been 
invited to appear and originate its programs in a foreign country, and will be the 
first American television series to be presented in England from the BBC’s studios* 

One of the programs presented will be about British television itself; how it was 
developed, how programs are presented in England* The first television set to be 
developed in England by John Logie Baird will be shorn, as well as photographs and 
film taken from this set. 

Another of the programs will be broadcast remote from one of the British scientific 
institutions. The third program will cover the development of jet planes and will 
show the British passenger jet-propelled plane. 

This is the second international project of "The Johns Hopkins Science Review." Last 
year the French television directors requested kinescopes of the program through 
UNESCO* Two kinescopes were sent, shown on French television and have since been 
shown to many groups by UNESCO. 

SURVEY OF BRITISH WEEKLIES TO BECOME WEEKLY FEATURE OF WNYC 

In line with its policy of keeping the American public informed about what people in 
other countries are thinking and doing, WNYC started a new series of weekly programs, 
"Survey of British Weeklies," on February 2k at 1*30 p.m. 

These transcribed broadcasts consist of summaries of the contents of British weekly 
periodicals. They will be heard exclusively in the New York area by special arrange¬ 
ment with the British Broadcasting Corporation. 

Since Christmas of last year, WNYC has been keeping its listeners up-to-date on cur¬ 
rent Italian thinking through the weekly series of transcribed broadcasts from Rome, 
"Letter from Italy," heard every Monday at 5tk$ to p.m. 

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE ISSUES BROCHURE ON ITS USE OF RADIO 

The University of Tennessee recently issued a brochure entitled Radio at the Univers¬ 
ity of Tennessee which states the basic philosophy and reviews the experiences of the 
University in its use of radio. 

The booklet surveys the History of Radio at the University, reports on its Broad¬ 
casts On Commercial Stations, and goes into detail on The Who, What, How and Why of 
WUOT (the University’s own station—an NAEB member)* Copie f are available from 
F. C. LOWRY, Dean of University Extension, Knoxville, Tennessee. 








KUOM OFFERS LENTEN MUSIC SERIES 


-9- 


KUOM, the University of Minnesota radio station, this year expanded its Lenten music 
programming into a two-week "Lenten Music Festival" which ran from April 1 12. Music 
Director Ray Christensen, who produced the festival, selected music "to convey the 
spirit of Easter." The programs were aired from 6-7 p.m. daily and 2-5 p.m. on 
Saturdays• 

Highlight of the series was the Good Friday broadcast of Wagner»s Parsifal. KUOM has 
broadcast portions of Parsifal during past Easter seasons, but this year listeners 
heard the complete opera — hi hours long — aired for the first time in this area. 

Christensen added an interdenominational flavor to the Lenten Music Festival by invit¬ 
ing Twin City ministers to appear on the programs with comments about each featured 
work and its relation to the Easter season. Before the series began a KUOM production 
team visited the churches of participating ministers to record their remarks. 

Some of the outstanding music aired during KUOM’s festival included the Easter Canta- 
t a > St. John’s Passion and St. Matthew ’s Passion by Bach; The Resurrection Story and 
Seven Words from the Cross by Schuetz; The Ascension by Massaien; a special all 
choral concert, and about bO other works. 

Churches, music stores and newspapers cooperated to give the series publicity. Minne¬ 
apolis and St. Paul music critics used the festival as a news peg and then went on to 
laud KUOM’s serious music programming which is unique in its area. The newspapers 
also carried other stories about the programs as did church newspapers and bulletins. 
Music stores mailed and passed out brochures and arranged window displays. 


WUOM OFFERS UNUSUAL "TALK BACK" BROCHURE 

The Ifoiversity of Michigan's WUOM has prepared an interesting little brochure based 
upon commits from letters entitled »0n Talking Back to a Radio Station," The bro¬ 
chure begins with the following statement} 

"Ten hours a day for more than five days a week WUOM speaks to its audience 
throughout Michigan. It speaks in English, in the universal language of 
music, and once in a while in French, Gentian, Hindustani, and Japanese. 

"It speaks on matters of interest to children of kindergarten age...and to 
adults who have started their years of retirement. It speaks to businessmen, 
housewives, professional people, students, merchants, and teachers. It speaks 
to the city’s shop girls and factory workers, and to the country’s miners, 
growers, and dairymen. 

"What WUOM speaks about is as diversified as the audience it reaches: 
literature, sporting events, folk and classical music, science and re¬ 
search, and current news in the world today. 


"But this is not a soliloquy. The audience frequently talks back. 


"For your information we’ve selected and grouped a few typical comments from 
the WUOM mailbag..." 


There follow four pages of comments from listeners' letters, each section being in¬ 
troduced by a description of the programs on which the letters comment. Copies of 
the brochure may be had upon request to Waldo Abbot, MAEB Region III Director, who is 
Director of WUOM. 













-10- 


KUSD HAS 2 OOP WEEKLY RURAL SCHOOL LISTENERS 

In-school radio programs, which have been featured by the University of South Dakota 
radio station for the past five months, are being listened to by more than 2000 rural 
school children weekly, according to a recent survey made by KUSD. These programs, 
broadcast each afternoon for the schoolroom, cover a variety of subjects including 
science, geography, social science, history, music, literature and s peech. Teachers 
are supplied with manuals concerning the programs, 

A survey of the school of the air showed that of the rural schools in the KUSD area, 
all that had radios listened to at least one of the ten programs each week# The sur¬ 
vey showed that of the schools in the KUSD area, ll$ schools listened to from one to 
ten programs each week* Of the 393 schools answering the questionnaire, 199 were 
without radios* Poor reception was listed by 18 schools as a reason for not listen¬ 
ing to these programs, and 13 schools reported not listening because they could not 
locate the station, or because they were teaching in a specialized field not covered 
by the school of the air* 

For the schools not having radios, tape recordings of the various programs are sent 
them free of charge. This tape exchange is a free service of the University station. 
Twenty-seven South Dakota schools have used 323 tape recorded 1$ minute school of the 
air programs in their classrooms* 

NEW RADIO-TV INSTRUCTOR AT MIAMI UNIVERSITY 

Edgar D. Talbert of Rock Hill, S, C., has been appointed radio and television instruc¬ 
tor in the University of Miami (Fla.) Radio and Television Department* In addition 
to teaching, he will supervise news and music programs produced by the department for 
broadcast over Greater Miami commerical stations* 

Talbert, a graduate of the University in 19 U9, was program director at Station WTYC, 
Rock Hill. He also did graduate work at U. of M. in 19U9 and at Winthrop College, 
Rock Hill, in 1991. Talbert has also been active in civic radio and theatre pro¬ 
ductions as an actor and director. He served as a corporal in the 10th Armored 
Division, 3rd Army, 19 months in the European theater of operations. 

He takes over the vacancy at the University caused by ill health of T. J. Wertenbaker, 
Jr., now on leave of absence. 

SECOND EDITION NAEB BIBLIOGRAPHY BEING PREPARED 

All NAEB members are invited to make suggestions in regard to the second edition of 
the radio-television bibliography being prepared by the secretary for summer re¬ 
lease. All the standard periodical and book publication guides have been used to 
compile a detailed list of all articles on the non-engineering .aspects of radio and 
television published from January 19U9 to date. These will be grouped into cate¬ 
gories similar to those used in the original edition of the guide issued in the sum¬ 
mer of 1990. 

When completed the bibliography is expected to cover approximately one hundred stan¬ 
dard single-spaced typewritten p^ges. 

Suggestions as to the format of the new edition or on its contents should be sent 
immediately to the NAEB secretary. Burton Paulu, Station KU0M, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis llj., Minnesota. 






* 11 - 


REPQRT ON NAEB ADULT EDUCATION PROJECT 

The NAEB Adult Education Project has now moved into the active production phase in 
all four fields in which programs are to be developed, it is reported by Wm. Harley, 
project coordinator. 

Four of the programs in the 11 Jeffersonian Heritage 1 ’ series are now finished and an¬ 
other four will be produced the last two weeks in May when Claude Rains, starred as 
Jefferson, returns from London* The completed programs deal with Jefferson’s ideas 
about the Declaration of Independence, freedom of religion, freedom of the mind, and 
equal and exact justice* All were written by Morton Wishengrad; Milton Geiger has 
been brought out from the West coast to d o the remaining programs and is now working 
with the consultant, Dumas Malone• The Jefferson s eries will be released to NAEB 
stations the first week in June* 

Five full-hour documentary programs on the U.S.S.R. are being produced in the series 
’’People Under Communism.” These programs dealwith: Soviet diplomacy $ controls in the 
arts; secret police system; the Soviet factory workers; and communism in Asia* It is 
planned to produce the complete series by April 30* 

Production on the "Ways of Mankind” programs begins the week of April 20th in Toron¬ 
to. Andrew Allan, chief of production for CBC, will direct* 

The Washington project originally planned as the feature of the public affairs area 
has been dropped, and has been replaced with four pilot projects; 

International discussion sen.es in cooperation with BBC and CBC. The 
director of the Third Program is being brought over for the planning 
conference. (He will also discuss possibilities for sharing further 
Third Program materials with the tape network.) 

Recorded interviews and discussions from Europe under supervision of 
Milton Mayer. 

Talk-back discussion programs using recorded comments from people about 
the country in response to experts’ views. 

A series of 26 quarter-hour talks on communications using leading figures 
in government, education, and industry. 

POSITIONS AND HELP VOTED 

Position Wanted; Doctoral candidate New York University (B.S. and M.A. from NYU) 
wishes position in communications. Background in science education and human rela¬ 
tions work, teaching experience high school and university I.vels. Special interest 
in educational radio and television writing. Frank Wolf, 300 West 109 Street, New 
York 25, New York. 

Help Wanted; Program Director for 1000 watt University educational station* Idea 
man with creative abilities and experience in script writing and production. Mature, 
married man preferred, midwestern background, college degree, who enjoys working with 
college students. Some teaching duties required. Send disc, script, and complete 
information to KUSD, Vermillion, South Dakota. 

Help Wanted: Production Director for 1000 watt University educational station. Posi¬ 
tion requires experience in production and script writing, announcing and supervision 
of student staff. College degree with midwestern background. Knowledge.of all types 
of music desirable. Send disc, scripts, and complete information to KUSD, Vermillion, 
South Dakota. 









RADIO AND TELEVISION OVERSEAS 


EDUCATIONAL TV IN BRITAIN 

The BBC intends to carry into television the techniques which it has developed during 
25 years of successful broadcasting to schools on sound radio* At the present time 
114,000 schools listen daily to programs ranging through advanced courses in Madera 
Languages, Literature and History for the intermediate grades, and Music and Rhythm 
for the tots* Programs of the ’Our Town’ type are also done on a regional basis for 
local schools* All of these programs are run in consultation with the School Broad¬ 
casting Council, a body whose members are nominated by the Government, the BBC, and 
the various organizations connected with British Education* 

Long-Term Program 

From this national Council there has now been drawn a small professional group to 
advise on the problems of teaching by television. This committee, which has been 
working on the question for some time, has come to the conclusion that two years of 
experimental television broadcasts will be required before a full program can be 
evolved* Since it is expected that it will take a further year before the schools in 
Britain can be equipped with receivers, it will not be until the autumn of 1 9%h that 
that country can expectto see educational television on a national basis* 

At the moment Britain is served by a single television network and the only alterna¬ 
tive programs are those provided by regional stations operating out of the national 
network, but the priorities of both educational and broadcasting authorities are such 
that school broadcasts form the first basis of a national alternative program to be 
developed. 

In the initial stages of the experiment, which begins on May 5 th, there will be four 
weeks of daily afternoon programs* There will be five short series of subjects 
Science, Current Affairs, Travel, Aesthetics and the Industrial Scene* The main pur¬ 
pose of the project is to try out a variety of program techniques with special^empha¬ 
sis on their effectiveness in presenting educational material to children viewing in 
classroom conditions* 

Six schools have been selected as partners in the experiment, all of them near the 
BBC's transmitter at Alexandra Palace in North London, and all of them Secondary 
Schools, or High Schools as they would be called in the United States. They will re¬ 
ceive the pictures on a special frequency and for technical reasons the sound will be 
fed to them by direct land line* 

Film Will Play Big Part 

Techniques to be used in the presentation of the programs will include laboratory 
demonstrations from the studio, the use of animated diagrams, and photo-micography. 

It is. intended that considerable use will be made of film material. In some cases 
travel films will be presented by the people who made them, commentators will make 
use of film in reporting on Current Affairs, and film will also be integrated into 
remote broadcasts as well as studio interviews* 

The subjects selected for the beginning of this project are those in which the video 
aspect can most usefully supplement the already flourishing system in schools sound 
broadcasting* The children attending the schools selected for the initial experi¬ 
ments are said to be looking forward excitedly to May 5th* School, they say, will be 
"as good as the movies." 









-13- 

COMPTON SAYS SOVIET AFRAID OF AMERICAN BROADCASTS 

A State Department official says the Soviet Union is taking drastic measures to keep 
their people from listening to - the Voice of America. 

Wilson Compton, Chief of the Departments International Information Administration, 
says the Soviet Government has ordered electric current cut off in Soviet and satel¬ 
lite rural areas during the peak broadcasting hours of The Voice. Compton also said 
severe penalties are imposed on people in the Soviet Union and the satellite areas 
who are caught repeating anything heard on the Voice broadcasts. 

He says 75 per cent of the broadcasts get through to some areas of the Soviet Union 
despite the fact that Russia has nearly one thousand radio stations trying to '’jam' 1 
the programs. In Moscow and Leningrad—where jamming is particularly heavy—he says 
penetration drops to about 25 per cent. 

RED-WHITE-RED NETWORK FIGHTS COMMUNISM IN AUSTRIA 

The battle of the radio networks in the tiny but important Republic of Austria is a 
hot spot in the cold war against Communism. 

The American-sponsored Red-White-Red Radio Network runs far ahead of the Russian 
controlled RAVAG in popularity. According to a recent survey, 76% of the Austrian 
public prefer RWR, which is good news for the U.S. Department of State, since Austria 
under 4 -power occupation, straddles the Iron Curtain. The RWR headquarters in the 
capital city of Vienna are more than one hundred miles within the Russian zone. Low¬ 
er Austria itself is Russian occupied and surrounded by Hungary and Czechoslovakia, 
two Red satellites. 

A typical example of the American drive for goodwill is a recent program sponsored by 
RWR with all proceeds donated to the reconstruction fund for St. Stephans Church, one 
of Austria’s most celebrated landmarks. The immense Vienna Concert House, famed as 
the Austrian headquarters for music, echoed to sounds ranging froma symphony orches¬ 
tra, to the Deutsch-Master Band which was the pride of Old Vienna, and a quiz show 
with audience participation for cash prizes. 

The SRO house responded to the spirit of the program. Mrs. Paula Konrad, an elderly 
Viennese who has known better days, insisted that her first prize of 2000 schillings 
(an average family’s monthly earnings: 1600 schillings) from the quiz show join the 
kitty. Other contestants followed suit. Altogether, RWR raised 25,000 schillings 
for St. Stephans, money which was subsequently presented to Cardinal Theodor Innetzer 
in the name of the Austrian people. 

Catholic Austria liked the idea of the Americans taking such an interest in the 
church project. Since German is a second tongue to the Czechoslovaks and the Hungar¬ 
ians, and they too are predominantly Catholic, the broadcast captured new friends 
across the borders where the Reds discourage church activities. A number of letters 
from foreign listeners found their way through censorship to the RWR offices in 
Vienna. 

CBC SETS UP TRAINING SCHEDULE 

- A training course for 60 new television employees has been started in Toronto and 
Montreal by the Canadian Broadcasting operation. Included in the tra. ning group are 
personnel who will handle technical and creative elements of TV programs when CBC 
telecasts begin next August or September. By that time CBC expects to have almost 
200 trained TV workers in the two cities. 





FOURTH RADIO FREE EUROPE TRANSMITTER GOES ON AIR IN PORTUGAL 

A 50 kilowatt short wave transmitter near Lisbon, Portugal, has started relaying Radio 
Free Europe programs through the Iron Curtain, it has been announced by General Lu¬ 
cius D. Clay, national chairman of the Crusade for Freedom. 

General Clay revealed that with the inauguration of this transmitter, Radio Free Eu¬ 
rope now operates four $0 kilowatt short wave transmitters in Portugal, made possible 
by the contributions of the American people to the 1951 Crusade for Freedom* 

Radio Free Europe now broadcasts daily to six Iron Curtain countries for a total of 
300 hours per week over a network of nine freedom stations. In addition to the four 
transmitters in the Munich and Frankfort areas of Western Germany. 

Portugal Selected Due to Short Wave Relay Position 

The four Portugal transmitters, located in Gloria, a village i;0 miles northeast of 
Lisbon, are operated by a joint Portuguese-Radio Free Europe corporation named Socie- 
dade Anonima de Radio Retransmissao (RARET). Under the terms of an agreement with 
the Portuguese government, RARET facilities are used exclusively by Radio Free Europe 
to relay programs originating in its Munich studios to Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslo¬ 
vakia, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania. 

Portugal was selected as the site for Radio Free Europe's new transmitters because of 
its excellent short wave relay position to Eastern Europe, General Clay said. He 
praised the government and the people of Portugal for their cooperation in making the 
Radio Free Europe installations possible and c ompleting their construction in the 
record-breaking time of less than six months. Ground for the transmitter building in 
Gloria was broken last September and the four transmitters were on the air by the end 
of February. 

The first of the four 50 kilowatt transmitters in Gloria went on the air Christmas 
day, beaming Radio Free Europe programs to the Communist satellite states. The second 
transmitter started broadcasting operations in January, the "bird early in February 
and the fourth on February 27. 

RARET’s installation at Gloria includes a half-mile long antenna system designed to 
magnify the power of the transmitters and provide pin-point accuracy for Radio Free 
Europe broadcasts to Eastern Europe. 

Multiple Transmissions Possible 

In order to relay programs to Portugal from Radio Free Europe's broadcasting head¬ 
quarters in Munich, two 10 kilowatt transmitters have been installed by Radio Free 
Europe. These programs are received at RARET 1 s modern receiving station ten miles 
from Gloria and then fed to the powerful 50 kilowatt transmitters in Gloria for re- 
broadcast through the Iron Curtain. 

In this way. Radio Free Europe’s program can be broadcast simultaneously, on differ¬ 
ent wave lengths, to Eastern Europe by transmitters in Munich, Frankfort and Portur- 
gal. The transmission of programs over several frequencies enables Radio Free Europe 
to reach a maximum potential audience in the Soviet captive states and counteract the 
efforts of the Communists to jam the programs. 

"The expansion of Radio Free Europe, which started broadcasting on July 1+, 1950, with 
a single low-powered transmitter, is a tremendous achievement," General Clay said. 
"Much of the credit for this hard-hitting campaign against Communism goes to the 
American people who have given so generously to the Crusade for Freedom. 










THE NAEB TAPE NETWORK 


Prepared by Richard Rider 
NAEB Tape Network Manager 
University of Illinois, Urbana 


A CALL FOR PROGRAMS 

It was reaffirmed at the recent Purdue meeting of the program committees that one of 
the important functions of the tape network is the interchange of programs produced 
by member stations. This function presupposes that the menber stations will submit 
programs for use by the network. Our present purpose is to stimulate this latter 
process. 

In addition to regular programs the network needs in-school programs. While other 
sources are being investigated we are, at this time, coupletely dependent upon our 
member stations for in-school programs. 

It is only by sorting through many possible series that we can keep a high level of 
quality and achieve the diversified and balanced schedule which we all desire. We at 
headquarters and the members of the program committee can only listen to the programs 
which you send in, 

BRIEFLY: PLEASE SEND IN SOME PROGRAMS. We are starting to plan the fall offerings 
now. We plan to have the in-school committee select the next school programs at the 
IERT in Columbus. We hope to afford you the opportunity at Columbus to hear some of 
these programs. None of this is possible, of course, unless we receive some programs. 
The following points should be kept in mind* 

1. Send to Network Headquarters? 

a. Prospectus of series showing number and titles of programs, time, talent, 
format, etc. 

b. Several representative programs for auditioning. 

c. Teacher’s manuals for school programs. 

2. Be prepared to furnish us with original recordings of all programs accepted 
for use. 

3. Headquarters returns or replaces all tapes submitted either for audition or 
distribution. 

iw It is desirable to have scripts, promotion materials and any other available 
infornation that would be helpful to stations using the programs. 

NEW WORD ON THE DUPLICATOR 

No sooner do we say soma thing about the mass duplicator than the little wheels spin 
and all is different. HOWEVER, (and I say the following advisedly) this time it 
looks like the real thingj 

L. S. Toogood, our original inspiration for mass duplication of tapes, has completed 
arrangements with Rawdon Smith Associates, of Washington, D.C., for the distribution 
of duplicators. The mechanical part is supplied by Toogood. Smith adds all the elec¬ 
tronic circuits, installs the machine, and checks it out to insure that it is perform¬ 
ing according to the desired standards. 

Lf present negotiations are completed on schedule we will have a duplicator by summer. 
By fall we can say goodby to the "bicycle network." We will, at long last, be in 
business. 







-16- 


MORE ON EQUIPMENT 

The tape network is now the proud owner of two Ampex 300, rack-mounted, recorders. 
These are part of the results of the engineering conference reported in the February- 
March News-Letter . 

The main function of these machines is to provide the playback copy that goes on the 
mass duplicator. The long range plans call for more and more programs to be supplied 
to the network on 1$ i.p.s. original tapes. These will be reduced to 7f i.p.s. on 
the Ampex 1 s. Programs received on disc will also be recorded on tape on these 
machines. 

This installation, together with some related equipment, will enable us to put the 
finest obtainable tape on the playback circuit of the duplicator• ■ 

In addition to the Ampex's we are now equipped with a splendid speaker and amplifier 
system for monitoring programs. Poor recording becomes instantly obvious. On order 
we have the necessary test equipment to insure that all of our equipment is operating 
according to rigid standards. 

This all means better tapes for the networkl 


RESEARCH REPORT 
Prepared by Dallas Smythe 
NAEB Director of Studies 
University of Illinois, Urbana 


THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BROADCASTS ON TOLERANCE 

"Brotherhood Week" was recently observed and it is assumed that educational broadcas¬ 
ters did some programming along this line. The question naturally rises whether the 
appeals in programs designed to build racial tolerance are effective. Usually such 
programs stress heavily appeals to reason, to moral values (including Christian com¬ 
passion), and to patriotic values. As a practicing social scientist the educational 
broadcaster is presumably interested in knowing what effects such programs have. 

Since the target for them is the prejudiced person, the question revolves around the 
reactions of the prejudiced to such appeals. The un-prejudiced, by and large, don't 
need to be needled. Is it possible that far from making the bigot less prejudiced, 
such programs might even have the opposite effect? 

Here is a very practical problem. Practical and pertinent information on it is pro¬ 
vided by a study of the personality, done by psychologists, to which we call your 
attention. The book in question is The Authoritarian Personality published by Harper 
& Bros. (New York, 1950, $7.50) and written by T.W* Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, 
Daniel J. Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford. 

The problem set for the authors was the question. What is there in the psychology of 
the individual that renders him "prejudiced" or "unprejudiced"? What does the term 
"authoritarian personality" mean? In character terms, the authors describe its as 
follows: 

"In contrast to the bigot of the older sytle he seems to combine the ideas and 
skills which are typical of a highly industrialized society with irrational or 
anti-rational beliefs. He is at the same time enlightened and superstitious, 
proud to be an individualist and in constant fear of not being like all the 
others, jealous of his independence and inclined to submit blindly to power 
and authority." 














- 17 * 


- The investigation was not directed towards avowed fascists but rather to the general 
population. Its purpose was to discover the traits in the "potentially fascistic 
individual 11 which render him particularly susceptible to anti-democratic propaganda 
For this reason the study was concerned not with overt behaviour but first of all 
with the attitudes, opinions, and values. Psychologically, opinions, attitudes, and 
values are "on the surface"; yet the emotional charge in questions concerning minor¬ 
ity groups is so great that “the degree of openness with which a person speaks will 
depend upon the situation in which he finds himself.'* One might therefore distin¬ 
guish between the open, and the partly submerged attitudes. Both of these can be 
measured by the use of the appropriate techniques without too much difficulty. Still 
a third level, however, consists of the deeper layer which is even more out of sight. 
"The individual may have 'secret* thoughts which he will under no circumstances 
reveal to anyone else if he can help it; he may have thoughts which he cannot admit 
to himself, and he may have thoughts which he does not express because they are so 
vague and ill-formed that he cannot put them into words." It is at this level that 
the authors concentrate their search for the factors making for the potentially 
fascist personality. As they put it, 

"What people say, and to a lesser degree, what they really think depends very 
largely upon the climate of opinion in which they are living; but when that 
climate changes, some individuals adapt themselves much more quickly than 
others. If there should be a marked increase in antidemocratic propaganda, we 
should expect some people to accept and repeat it at once, others when it 
seemed that 'everybody believed it** and still others not at all." 

They were also concerned with the relation between this "ideology-in-readiness and 

- the person's capacity for expressing it in words and action.. 

Viewing the personality as "a more or less enduring organization of forces within the 
individual," they perceive these forces as "readinesses for response." They see 
these forcbs as "primarily needs (drives, wishes, emotional impulses)'Which vary from 
one individual to another in their quality, their intensity, their mode of gratifica¬ 
tion, and the objects of their attachment, and which interact with other needs in 
harmonious or conflicting patterns." This basically Freudian theory is however 
placed in a. social context. While the authors view the personality forces as deter¬ 
mining ideological preferences, they recognize that the personality forces are them¬ 
selves the product of environment. Denying the existence of "innate" or "racial" 
personality forces, they see the individual's personality as conditioned by his 
social, religious, and economic environment, and give great weight to the nature of 
the child training in the family life setting. 

The Authoritarian Personality is a monumental work, conducted by a team of competent 
psychologists over a period of years, and as a joint project of the Berkeley Public 
Opinion Study and the Institute for Social Research, at the University of California. 
It reports over a span of almost 1,000 pages on the use of every pertinent tool of 
analysis in the investigation of the problem. Chapters are devoted to the develop¬ 
ment of questionnaires for measuring the kind and amount of anti-semitism, political- 
economic ideology, ethno-centrism (hostility to outgroups). An extremely interesting 
chapter (VII) explains why and how a test was constructed to measure "implicit anti¬ 
democratic trends" — called the F (for Fascist) test. What makes this test partic¬ 
ularly useful is the fact that its items are all neutral; that is, not directly re¬ 
lated to prejudice. Persons taking it therefore reveal their underlying attitudes 
without realizing the fact. Scores on it correlate *75> with the test for ethno- 
centrism and .57 with the test on political-economic ideology. Your reviewer is 
currently using the F scale test experimently with subjects at the University of 
Illinois. You too might consider piling around with it in your work. 




- 18 - 

The results of the broad program of research can only be sailed here* One interest¬ 
ing passage sunmrizes txhe types of "syndromes" found among persons high on measures 
of authoritarian potential, tfe offer a condensed version of two of the 6 syndromes 
so that you may sample the findings; 

1. Surface resentment. This is really a sociological type which includes the "more 
rational, either conscious or preconscious, manifestations of prejudice." Such per¬ 
sons have a "generality of prejudiced outlook;" they "accept stereotypes of prejudice 
from outside, as ready made formulae, as it were, in order to rationalize and psycho¬ 
logically or actually, overcon© overt difficulties of their own existence." They are 
able to give sensible reasons for their prejudice and are accessible to rational argu¬ 
ment. "Here belongs the discontented, grumbling family father who is happy if some¬ 
body else can be blamed for his own economic failures, and even happier if he can de¬ 
rive material advantages from anti-minority discrimination..." 

2. The manipulative. Regarded by the authors as "potentially the most dangerous 
one," this syndrome is defined by extreme stereotype. Organizational categories fill 
the outlook of this type of person, along with concern for the technical aspects of 
life, social and other. They treat everyone and everything as objects to be manipu¬ 
lated. They are sober and intelligent. "They do not even hate the Jews; they cope 
with them by administrative measures without any personal contacts with victims. Anti- 
Semitism is reified, an export article...Their cynicism is aLmost complete; ’The Jew¬ 
ish question will be solved strictly legally’, is the way they talk about the cold 
pogrom*..The ingroup-outgroup relationship becomes the principle according to which 
the whole world is abstractly organized." In Germany, Himmler personified this type • 

Space does not permit a similar summary of the types found at the other end of the 
scale. However, it is concluded that greater differences are found among the types 
of people who are low on the authoritarian scale than at the other extreme. 

The authors fortunately stated the policy implications of their research. One might 
think of radio programs on tolerance as he reads: 

"It follows directly from our major findings that counter-measures should take 
into account the whole structure of the prejudiced outlook. The major 
emphasis should be placed, it seems, not upon discrimination against 

particular minority groups, but upon such phenomena as s'+Treotypy, 

emotional coldness, identification with power, and~general destructive¬ 

ness! When one takes this view of the matter it is not difficult to see 
why measures to oppose social discrimination have not been more effective. 

Rational arguments cannot be expected to have deep or lasting effects upon 
a phenomenon that is irrational in its essential nature; appeals to sym¬ 
pathy may do as much harm as good when directed to people one of whose 
deepest fears is that they might be identified with weakness or suffering; 
closer association with members of minority groups can hardly be expected 
to influence people who are largely characterized by the inability to have 
experience, and liking for particular groups or individuals is very diffi¬ 
cult to establish in people whose structure is such that they cannot really 
like anybody; and if we should succeed in diverting hostility from one 
minority group we should be prevented from taking satisfaction by the 
knowledge that the hostility will now very probably be directed against 
some other group." (p. 973 emphasis supplied.) 








- 19 - 


They liken most programs against prejudice to treatment of synptoms rather than of the 
disease itself. And they express the hope that 

n Knowledge of what the potential fascist is like•••will make symptomatic 
treatment more effective* Thus, for example, although appeals to his reason 
or to his sympathy are likely to be lost on him, appeals to his conventional¬ 
ity or to his submissiveness toward authority might be effective.•.Similarly, 
it is consistent with what we know of the potentially fascist personality to 
suppose that he would be iirpressed by legal restraints against discrimination, 
and that his self-restraint would increase as minority groups became stronger 
through being protected," (p. 973 — 14 -) 

Discounting the possibility of "curing" the prejudiced by means of psychotherapy (the 
huge size of the task and the small number of therapists), the authors point to the 
greater desirability of changing the child-rearing pattern of our nation to the end 
that "children be genuinely loved and treated as individual humans" in order to grow 
into adults capable of seeing themselves and being themselves, rather than adults 
tortured with ethnocentrism. Yet they recognize that to change the child-rearing pat¬ 
tern will require changes in the economic and political organization of society and 
they charge all social scientists with responsibility for developing the program for 
these changes. 

Significantly for us who work with the mass media, their last conclusion is that no 
lasting increase in people's capacity to see and be themselves, can be expected from 
the devices of manipulation. They lay responsibility on the mass media with the 
conclusion, "That people too often cannot see the workings of society or their own 
role within it is due not only to a social control that does not tell the truth but 
to a 'blindness' that is rooted in their own psychology." Finding that the "potenti¬ 
ally fascist pattern" is to "a large extent imposed upon people" the authors hold 
hope that the resources of the population will resist it. Finally, they conclude 
that "we need not suppose that appeal to emotion belongs to those who strive in the 
direction of fascism, while democratic propaganda must limit itself to reason and 
restraint. If fear and destructiveness are the major emotional sources of fascism, 
eros belongs mainly to democracy," 

At most, all this kind of summary can do is tease you into reading this pioneering 
piece of research. Its practical usefulness for the educator can hardly be over¬ 
stated, But before you plunge into the reading of it, let me give you a warning. 

Here is no slick package of formulae; while the writing is straight-forward, the 
authors have been concerned more with scientific accuracy than with dressing their 
findings in popular prose. Be prepared to p^r for your new-won knowledge with some 
mental effort. 



National Association of Educational Broadcasters 


1952 Directory of Officers, Consultants, and Committees 


OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT 
SEYMOUR N. SIEGEL 
WNYC, Municipal 
Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 


VICE-PRESIDENT 
GRAYDON AUSMUS 
WUOA, University of Alabama 
University, Alabama 

TREASURER 

FRANK E. SCHOOLEY 
WILL, University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 


SECRETARY AND 
PUBLICATIONS EDITOR 
BURTON PAULU 
KUOM, University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Region I 

PARKER WHEATLEY 
WGBH, Lowell Institute 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Maine, New York, Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsyl¬ 
vania, New Jersey, Delaware, 
and Maryland 

Region II 
ALVIN GAINES 
WABE, Board of Education 
Atlanta, Georgia 

Virginia, West Virginia, Alabama, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
and Mississippi 

Region III 
WALDO ABBOT 

WUOM, University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Wisconsin 


Region IV 
RICHARD B. HULL 
WOI, Iowa State College 
Ames, Iowa 

Iowa, Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming 

Region V 
JOHN DUNN 

WNAD, University of Oklahoma 
Norman, Oklahoma 
Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, 
Texas, and Louisiana 

Region VI 
ALLEN MILLER 

KWSC, State College of 
Washington 
Pullman, Washington 
Montana, Washington, California, 
Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, 
Utah, and Territory of Hawaii 


NATIONAL OFFICE 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 
JAMES MILES 
University of Illinois 
119 Gregory Hall 
Urbana, Illinois 

DIRECTOR OF STUDIES 
DALLAS W. SMYTHE 
University of Illinois 
Institute of Communications 
Research 
Urbana, Illinois 

TAPE NETWORK MANAGER 
RICHARD L. RIDER 
University of Illinois 
119 Gregory Hall 
Urbana, Illinois 


GENERAL COUNSEL 
MARCUS COHN 
Cohn and Marks 
Cafritz Building 
Washington, D.C. 


STANDING COMMITTEES ^Chairman 


Executive Committee 
GRAYDON AUSMUS, WUOA 
University of Alabama 
University, Alabama 
BURTON PAULU, KUOM 
University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
FRANK E. SCHOOLEY, WILL 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 
♦SEYMOUR N. SIEGEL, WNYC 
Municipal Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 

Network Acceptance Committee 
♦BURTON PAULU, KUOM 
University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
NORTHRUP DAWSON, JR., KUOM 
University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
BERNARD BUCK, WNYC 

Municipal Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 
RAY STANLEY, WHA 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
H. E. SALLEY, WFPL 

Louisville Free Public Library 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Foundation Committee 
♦GEORGE PROBST 

University of Chicago 
Chicago, Illinois 
PARKER WHEATLEY, WGBH 
Lowell Institute 
Boston, Massachusetts 
RICHARD B. HULL, WOI 
Iowa State College 
Ames, Iowa 
H. B. MC CARTY, WHA 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
SEYMOUR N. SIEGEL, WNYC 
Municipal Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 


In-School Programs Committee 
♦ALVIN GAINES, WABE 
Board of Education 
Atlanta, Georgia 
MARGUERITE FLEMING, KSLH 
Board of Education 
St. Louis, Missouri 
JAMES MAC ANDREW, WNYE 
Board of Education 
Brooklyn, New York 
WILLIAM E. LEVENSON, WBOE 
Board of Education 
Cleveland, Ohio 
JOHN HENDERSON, WBAA 
Purdue University 
Lafayette, Indiana 
M. MC CABE DAY, WVSH 
School-City of Huntington 
Huntington, Indiana 

Research Committee 
♦ALLEN MILLER, KWSC 

Washington State College 
Pullman, Washington 
ROBERT COLEMAN, WKAR 
Michigan State College 
East Lansing, Michigan 
KEITH NIGHBERT, KUSD 
University of South Dakota 
Vermillion, South Dakota 
LEO MARTIN, WBUR 
Boston University 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Relay Network Committee 
♦GRAYDON AUSMUS, WUOA 
University of Alabama 
University, Alabama 
PATRICIA GREEN, KBPS 
Portland Public Schools 
Portland, Oregon 
DON LYONS, WAER 
Syracuse University 
Syracuse, New York 
and engineering representatives 
from WHA, WUSV, WOSU, and 
WGBH 


Membership Committee 
♦JOHN DUNN, WNAD 
University of Oklahoma 
Norman, Oklahoma 
EDWIN H. ADAMS, KUOW 
University of Washington 
Seattle, Washington 
LUCILE RUBY, WLSU 

Louisiana State University 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
VERNON MC KOWN, WNAS 
New Albany City School 
New Albany, Indiana 

Adult Education Committee 
♦GEORGE PROBST 

University of Chicago 
Chicago, Illinois 
PARKER WHEATLEY, WGBH 
Lowell Institute 
Boston, Massachusetts 
RICHARD B. HULL, WOI 
Iowa State College 
Ames, Iowa 
H. B. MC CARTY, WHA 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
SEYMOUR N. SIEGEL, WNYC 
Municipal Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 

Constitution Committee 
♦PARKER WHEATLEY, WGBH 
Lowell Institute 
Boston, Massachusetts 
HAROLD ENGEL, WHA 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
WALLACE GARNEAU, WMCR 
Western Michigan College 
Kalamazoo, Michigan 
E. G. BURROWS, WUOM 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
WILLIAM PFEIFFER, WBGO 
Board of Education 
Newark, New Jersey 


Auditing Committee 
♦WALDO ABBOT, WUOM 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
FATHER MC LOUGHLIN, WFUV 
Fordham University 
Bronx, New York 
JOHN DEPROSPO, WNYC 

Municipal Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 

Television Committee 
♦RICHARD B. HULL, WOI 
Iowa State College 
Ames, Iowa 

EDWARD STASHEFF, WNYE 
Board of Education 
Brooklyn, New York 
ARMAND HUNTER, WKAR 
Michigan State College 
East Lansing, Michigan 
PARKER WHEATLEY, WGBH 
Lowell Institute 
Boston, Massachusetts 
SEYMOUR N. SIEGEL, WNYC 
Municipal Broadcasting System 
New York, New York 

Convention Committee 
♦BURTON PAULU, KUOM 
University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
CAMILLE HENDERSON, WBKY 
University of Kentucky 
Lexington, Kentucky 
ROBERT COLEMAN, WKAR 
Michigan State College 
East Lansing, Michigan 
WALDO ABBOT, WUOM 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
ALLEN MILLER, KWSC 

Washington State College 
Pullman, Washington 










Scanned from the National Association of Educational Broadcasters Records 
at the Wisconsin Historical Society as part of 
"Unlocking the Airwaves: Revitalizing an Early Public and Educational Radio Collection." 


'oiTu> c KTwe 
\\KWAVEs 


A collaboration among the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities, 
University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Communication Arts, 
and Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Supported by a Humanities Collections and Reference Resources grant from 
the National Endowment for the Humanities 


I I T I—I MARYLAND INSTITUTE for 

I TECHNOLOGY in the HUMANITIES 



UNIVERSITY OF 

MARYLAND 



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HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY 





WISCONSIN 




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Humanities 


views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication/collection do not necessarily reflect those of the 

National Endowment for the Humanities.